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The very start of the project was in the late 1970's in the Plant Breeding Institute in Cambridge, United Kingdom, where Prof. Antonio Martin was doing a postdoc after finishing his PhD at the University of Córdoba. His project was to look at making crosses between wheat (Triticum) and barley (Hordeum) species.
One of the aims was the "holy grail" of getting a fertile inter-species hybrid between wheat and barley, but also there was interest in introgressing traits of interest from Hordeum into wheat, traits such as drought, heat and salt stress resistance and disease resistances. Barley tends to be more robust as crop than wheats and will yield under much more marginal conditions. At that time, crop breeding in general was focussed heavily on increasing yields under intensive production systems, but today with the acceptance that climate change is a reality and the change in focus towards sustainability calling for robust crops adapted to less intensive production systems (i.e. organic) the aims of the Cambridge project very relevant.
The main outcome of the project was that only a single one of the many Triticum X Hordeum combinations tested, T. durum X H. chilense gave rise to fertile progeny. From the very beginning the progeny plants were seen to have a very good appearance and excellent fertility compared with what is normally expected from inter-specific crosses. We now suspect that this is due to closer genetic distance between T. durum and H. chilense than would be expected which is why this genomic combination is compatible and gives viable plants.
It was thus clear that tritordeum was very interesting both from the scientific standpoint and potentially agronomically - following he example of triticale, the other manmade Triticum hybrid crop species.
The focus was always improvement of agronomic characteristics in parallel with grain quality traits (principally bread making quality, but also high protein, high lutein and organoleptic quality). This was very pragmatic - if you want to introduce a new cereal crop (a very major challenge - it took around 100 years for triticale, with numbers of groups working all around the world) it need to have competitive yield. We accept 1 - 2 tons per hectare in T. monococcum / Einkorn, Emmer, etc, as they are primitive "ancestral" cereals, but you could not get anyone to accept that in a new crop.
As we have gone on identifying characters of interest in tritordeum we have included those as selection criteria. At present, an important trait is the level of immunogenic gliadin peptides because of the interest in the suitability of tritordeum for people with non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) for which we have very promising results.
Another trait of interest is enzymatic activity, especially alpha and beta amylase for malting application.
Tritordeum is a hybrid of durum wheat and wild barley. It was created by crossing these two species in a process called hybridization.
Hybridization is the process of creating a new plant variety by crossbreeding two different varieties or species. In the case of Tritordeum, researchers used traditional plant breeding techniques to cross durum wheat, which is a type of wheat known for its high protein and gluten content and is used to make pasta, with barley, a cereal grain known for its hardiness and disease resistance, used for malting or feed.
The goal of creating Tritordeum was to create a new specie that combines the best characteristics of both durum wheat and barley.
Tritordeum is not a type of wheat, but rather it is a novel specie, a cross between durum wheat and wild barley. Durum wheat is a type of wheat that is used primarily for making pasta, while barley is a cereal grain that is commonly used for malting and feed.
Tritordeum is considered a new cereal crop that combines the best characteristics of both its parent species, such as high protein and gluten content, tolerance to drought and heat, and good digestibility. Tritordeum is considered as a new type of cereal grain that is different from traditional wheat and barley.
Tritordeum is not an ancient grain. It is a relatively new cereal grain that was developed through hybridization of durum wheat and wild barley. Tritordeum was first created in 1977 by a team of Spanish researchers as a way to combine the best characteristics of durum wheat and barley.
Ancient grains are typically defined as grains that have been cultivated for thousands of years and have not been significantly changed through modern breeding techniques. Examples of ancient grains include einkorn, emmer, spelt, kamut, and quinoa. Tritordeum is not one of these ancient grains because it is a recent hybrid developed through plant breeding.
Tritordeum is not a novel food. Tritordeum was developed crossing two known species, wheat and barley, using traditional breeding techniques.
The objective of creating Tritordeum was to combine the best characteristics of its parent species, such as high protein and gluten content, tolerance to drought and heat, and good digestibility. This new specie can be used for various applications such as bread making, pasta production and malting.
Tritordeum is a hybrid specie of cereal grain that was developed through traditional breeding techniques, it is not a genetically modified organism (GMO). It is a manual cross between durum wheat and wild barley, which are both non-GMO crops.
Tritordeum was developed by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC). The development of Tritordeum began in the 1970s, as a research project to develop a new cereal crop that would be able to tolerate harsh environmental conditions such as drought and heat, but also deliver good yields. The researchers used traditional breeding techniques to cross durum wheat with wild barley, and then selected the best performing plants for further breeding.
After several years of research and selection, Tritordeum was officially registered in Spain in 2007 as a new cereal crop.
Tritordeum is a novel specie of cereal that was developed by the prof. Antonio Martin of the IAS-CSIC.
In 2006, the "know-how" and resulting material of the initiated breeding program was hand over exclusively to Vivagran, that pursued the selection of commercial varieties of this new species. Today Vivagran holds a license from IAS-CSIC to exploit the "know-how" on a global scale.
Vivagran protects the commercial varieties though the CPVO (Community Plant Variety Office) and UPOV.
All partners and licensees of Vivagran sign a contract restricting usage of the germplasm to guarantee a control in the first steps of the value-chain. Once the grain is processed into something else (flour, malt,...), then the partner does not require a license with Vivagran.
If you are a researcher, please submit an inquiry and provide details about your research. If you are a grower and already have a relationship with a Tritordeum grain researcher, please submit your application to become a registered Tritordeum grower along with details about your research involvement.
Tritordeum is a relatively new crop and research on it is ongoing in several countries and regions around the world. Tritordeum was first developed by Vivagran, and it is still being researched and developed in Spain.
Research on Tritordeum has been conducted in other countries in Europe such as France, Italy, The Netherlands among others... as well as other regions with similar climates, such as Australia and USA.
Research on Tritordeum focuses on various aspects of the crop including agronomy, breeding, genetics, physiology, as well as its potential uses in food, feed and bioenergy production. Universities and research institutions are also conducting research on Tritordeum to understand its potential benefits and limitations. The research on Tritordeum is still ongoing, and more information about our academic partners can be found in the "My Sector" section under "I am a nutritionist/researcher" tab.
Tritordeum is a relatively new crop and it is not yet widely grown or available. It was developed in Spain and was licensed exclusively to Vivagran, the company that invested in the breeding program of Tritordeum, and launched it in the market in 2014.
It is not yet widely available in the commercial market. Availability of Tritordeum seeds and products are managed under a licensing system with Vivagran that provides support in the development of new lines and commercialization activities.
Tritordeum may be limited to certain regions or countries, however as its popularity is increasing, it's availability is also increasing while being introduced in new geographies like Australia and USA.
Tritordeum is a proprietary crop, meaning that it is owned by a specific company or entity and protected by intellectual property rights such as varieties registration. This means that the company or entity that owns the rights to Tritordeum has exclusive control over its production, distribution, and use. This is common in the agricultural industry, where new crop varieties are often developed through research and development, and the costs of this research are recouped through the sale of proprietary seed.
In the case of Tritordeum, it was developed by a Spanish public reserach institute called CSIC and licensed exclusively to Vivagran, the company that developed the varieties and launched it in the market.
The company has the right to decide who can plant, grow, harvest, and sell Tritordeum, and imposes certain conditions on its use. This is done to protect the investment made by Vivagran and ensure that the company can recoup the costs associated with developing the crop.
Tritordeum was listed in the PAC list of herbaceous crops from 2015.
It's number is 14.
Farmers receive similar financial grant as other cereals in their rotation.
Tritordeum is an un-reglamented crop. It does not appear in any catalog.
Tritordeum seed is produced according to certified seed quality standards, but is commercialized as UN-CERTIFIED seed following the Law 30/2006, of July 26, on seeds and nursery plants and phytogenetic resources.
According to article 31, point 5: Seeds and nursery plants of species not provided for in the specific technical regulations may marketed packaged or in bulk, but in both cases must be accompanied by a label or a supplier's document containing, at least, the name of the supplier, the species, the variety and the provisions of section 6 of this article, if applicable.
Consult full Law text here.
Tritordeum is not a hybrid seed, but is a hybrid crop.
About hybrid seed
A hybrid seed is created by crossing two different varieties of the same plant. Crossing involves taking the pollen from the male flower of one plant and transferring it to the female flower parts of a different plant.
Hybrid seeds are used to improve the characteristics of the resulting plants, such as better yield, greater uniformity, improved color, disease resistance. An important factor is the heterosis or combining ability of the parent plants.
Problems associated with hybrid seed are:
- They have to be produced every year
- When the hybrid seeds are sown, the characters are segregated and not maintained in the next generation
- The production cost of hybrid seeds is high.
About hybrid crop
A hybrid crop is obtained by crossing two different species of plants through controlled pollination. This is done by manually transferring pollen from the flower of one parent plant to the flower of another parent plant with the desired traits.
Hybrid crops are typically created to produce plants with specific desirable characteristics such as better yield, disease resistance, or improved quality. The resulting plants from hybrid seeds often exhibit greater uniformity, vigor, and productivity than their non-hybrid counterparts.
It is important to note that hybrid crops are not the same as genetically modified (GM) crops. GM crops are genetically engineered in a laboratory to have specific traits, while hybrid crops are produced through natural breeding methods.
In the Spanish classification, Tritordeum is number 22.214.171.124, namely x Tritordeum sp.
It belongs to the group of winter/spring cereals. All phytosanitary products approved for this group can be used for Tritordeum.
To consult the list of recommended products tested by Vivagran, go here.
Its adaptation is wide, although it prefers soils that range from neutral to moderately alkaline.
Regarding the type of soil, it obtains its highest productions in calcisols and vertisols type soils, although its adaptation is extensive like most of the wheats.
For autumn sowing, from mid-October to mid-November.
For spring sowing, from mid-January to mid-February.
Tritordeum does not require vernalization, and is therefore an alternative crop.
We recommend a dose between 150-180 kg/ha (it must be taken into account that the tillering capacity in Tritordeum is greater than in wheat).
The same methods and machinery will be used as in wheat. The depth must be adequate, a deep planting makes it difficult to tiller.
Taking into account that the extractions per ton of NPK harvest are approximately 30-15-20; for an expected production of 5 tons, it would be necessary to contribute: 150 Nitrogen Units (UN), 75 Phosphorus Units (UP), 100 Potassium Units (UK).
- Background fertilizer: in this fertilizer the total needs of Phosphorus and Potassium will be applied and only 20% of the total needs of Nitrogen, we recommend applying a background fertilizer that has the proportion 1-2-3, although it will depend of the previous crop or soil analysis.
- Cover fertilizer: we would contribute the total remaining Nitrogen needs (80%). It would be provided in two doses to avoid losses due to washing.
In the first covert we would apply 60% of the total Nitrogen needs and it will be done at the end of the tillering.
In the second cover we would apply 20% of the total Nitrogen needs and it will be applied when we see the flag leaf appear.
Remember that the fertilization calculations are made to cover the estimated extractions for a harvest of 5 tons per hectare, this calculation will be adapted to the specific plot.
Most of the herbicides for wheat and barley can also be used on Tritordeum, taking into account the stage of the crop and the weeds to be controlled. The most common and most used are:
- Tritosulfuron + Florasulam (BIATLON PRO)
- Thifensulfuron methyl 25%+ Tribenuron methyl 25% (GRANSTAR SUPER 50SX)
- Tribenuron methyl 16.7%+ Thifensulfuron methyl 33.3% (POSTA SX)
- Amidosulfuron 5% + Iodosulfuron sodium methyl 1.25% (SEKATOR)
- Pinoxaden (AXIAL PRO)
- Clodinafop propargyl + Pinoxaden (TRAXOS PRO)
Harvesting is started only when the crop is adequately dry (ideally in the afternoon) and with low grain moisture (less than 12%, 9-11% is ideal), tritordeum glumes are tougher than wheat and threshing is more efficient at low moisture levels.
When starting to harvest, check that no grains or unthreshed ears are being expelled with the straw fraction and that the combine is not excessively breaking grains - and make adjustments as necessary.
The correct calibration of the combine is very important for an efficient harvest because the threshing of this cereal, although depending on the variety, is generally harder than that of bread wheat and is more similar to rye or triticale , so the calibration of the combine should be varied accordingly.
With regard to sieves, it should be noted that the tritordeum grain is elongated compared to durum or bread wheat grains, so it is important to be careful with the sieves - with configurations for large diameter grains such as durum wheat grain loss will occur.
TO CONSIDER. Harvesting with the standard calibration for durum wheat and without proper control of threshing efficiency can result in significant tritordeum crop losses .
With modern commercial combines, grain threshing is much more efficient and these are usually operated by professionals who can select the correct settings without difficulty and most parameters can be automatically monitored and changed from the cab. However, it is important to take samples from the grain tank and from the straw, to monitor the threshing efficiency and to check that the grain is not being damaged.
Expected rainfed yield : between 3.5 and 5 t/ha
Expected yield in irrigation : between 5 and 8 t/ha. In intensive irrigation conditions and with high fertilization, it may be advisable to use a growth regulator to reduce lodging.
Sustainability / Climate
Tritordeum is considered to have several sustainability traits, which include:
- Drought tolerance: Tritordeum is known for its tolerance to drought and heat, which makes it a potential crop for areas with limited water resources.
- Low-input crop: Tritordeum can be grown with a reduced use of inputs such as water, fertilizers and pesticides.
- Disease resistance: Tritordeum is resistant to some of the common diseases that affect cereal crops such as Rusts and Septoria.
- Salinity tolerance: Tritordeum is considered to be salt-tolerant, which means that it can tolerate some level of salinity in the soil. This makes it suitable for cultivation in coastal regions where soil salinity is a problem.
These traits make Tritordeum a promising crop for sustainable agriculture, as it can adapt to harsh environmental conditions and has a high nutritional value. However, it's important to note that the level of tolerance and adaptability of Tritordeum may vary depending on the specific location, weather, soil and other environmental factors.
Tritordeum is mainly grown in Spain, Italy, The Netherlands, Greece and Australia. Trials are also being conducted in other countries like Austria, Germany, United Kingdom, USA,...
It is still considered a new crop and its cultivation is limited. However, it is being researched and studied by several institutions and farmers around the world who are interested in its potential as a new cereal crop. Its high tolerance to drought and heat, as well as its high nutritional value and gluten content, make it a promising crop for sustainable agriculture, particularly for regions with limited water resources. The research and development of Tritordeum is ongoing, and it's likely that it will be grown in other regions in the future as more information about its adaptability and performance becomes available.
Vernalization is the process of exposing plants to low temperatures for a period of time in order to induce flowering. This process is required for some cereal crops such as wheat and barley, but not for all.
Tritordeum, like its parent species barley, is a facultative vernalization crop, which means that it does not require vernalization to flower, but it can respond to vernalization by increasing the number of fertile tillers. Tritordeum can be grown in different planting dates, and it can be planted in the spring or in the fall. However, research has shown that a certain level of vernalization may improve its yield, particularly under certain environmental conditions.
It's important to note that Tritordeum is a new crop, and the information about its vernalization requirements may change as more research is conducted. It's always best to check with the local authorities or the producer for more information regarding the specific requirements of Tritordeum cultivation.
Tritordeum is considered a hardy crop, meaning it can tolerate cold temperatures to some degree. Tritordeum is able to withstand temperatures as low as -15°C, this is similar to barley, one of its parent species, which is known for its cold tolerance. However, like most cereal crops, Tritordeum can be damaged by frost, and it's sensitive to low temperatures during its vegetative growth stage.
It's important to note that the tolerance to cold temperatures may vary depending on the specific variety of Tritordeum, the location, the weather, and other environmental factors. Research on Tritordeum is still ongoing, and more information about its cold tolerance may become available as more research is conducted.
Tritordeum is a cereal grain that is known for its high protein content and nutritional value. According to research, it has been reported to contain:
- Protein: The protein content of Tritordeum can range from 12% to 16%, which is higher than that of most other cereal grains.
- Gluten: Tritordeum is considered a lower gliadins grain, making it a good option for people with gluten sensitivities.
- Fiber: Tritordeum has a high fiber content (higher than 6% in refined flour), which can help with digestion and weight management. The type of fiber is predominantly arabinoxylans and fructans, as shown in graph here.
- Lutein: Tritordeum contains 10 times more lutein than wheat, as shown in graph here.
- Fat: Tritordeum has a high fat content, especially mono-unsaturated oleic acid.
- Vitamins and minerals: Tritordeum is a good source of essential vitamins and minerals, including B vitamins, iron, and zinc.
It should be noted that nutritional content of cereal crops can vary depending on several factors such as the variety, location, and growing conditions.
Arabinoxylans and fructans are types of carbohydrates found in many plants, including cereal grains.
Arabinoxylans are a type of complex carbohydrate that is composed of a chain of xylose and arabinose sugars. They are commonly found in the cell walls of cereal grains and are known for their unique properties such as viscosity, water-holding capacity and gelation properties. These properties make arabinoxylans important for the texture, structure, and stability of many food products, particularly in bakery products.
Fructans are a type of carbohydrate that is composed of chains of fructose molecules. They are commonly found in many fruits, vegetables, and cereal grains, including wheat, barley, and rye. Fructans are known for their prebiotic properties, which means they can act as a food source for beneficial gut bacteria, promoting the growth of the healthy gut microbiome.
It's important to note that the content of Arabinoxylans and fructans can vary depending on the plant species and variety, location, and growing conditions, so more research is needed to determine the exact content of these carbohydrates in Tritordeum.
Gliadins are a class of proteins found in wheat and related grains such as barley and rye. They are a component of gluten, which is the major protein in these grains and is responsible for the elasticity and viscosity of doughs made from wheat flour. Gliadins are important for the structure, texture, and taste of many baked goods.
Gliadins are divided into two main groups, alpha- and gamma-gliadins, based on their amino acid sequence and properties. Alpha-gliadins are considered to be the major contributors to gluten strength and elasticity, while gamma-gliadins contribute to dough extensibility.
Gliadins are not typically found in durum wheat, which is one of the parents of Tritordeum, but it is found in barley, the other parent. The amount of gliadins in Tritordeum is lower than other cereals, as shown in the graph here.
It's also important to note that gluten, which is the compound formed by gliadins and glutenins, is not well tolerated by people with gluten-related disorders such as celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity, this is why Tritordeum is better tolerated by people who are gluten-sensitive.
Lutein is a carotenoid, a type of pigment found in many fruits, vegetables, and plants. It is a yellow-orange color and is closely related to zeaxanthin, another carotenoid. Lutein is best known for its role in maintaining healthy vision, particularly in the retina of the eye. It is also found in high concentrations in the macula, the central part of the retina that is responsible for sharp, central vision.
Lutein is a powerful antioxidant, which means it helps protect cells in the body from damage caused by harmful molecules called free radicals. It's also been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and can help protect the eyes from blue light damage, which is a type of light emitted by electronic devices like smartphones, tablets, and computers.
Lutein is not naturally produced by the human body, so it must be obtained through diet or supplements. Some good sources of lutein include leafy green vegetables such as spinach, kale, and collard greens, as well as eggs, corn, kiwi, and tangerines.
It's important to note that the amount of lutein in Tritordeum could vary depending on the variety, location, and growing conditions.
Tritordeum contains similar level of gluten than wheats, however, its gluten proteins composition is different. Tritordeum contains less alpha and omega gliadins than most other cereals, explained why it is better tolerated.
Tritordeum is not suitable for celiacs.
The glycemic index (GI) is a measure of how quickly a food raises blood sugar levels. Foods with a high GI are rapidly digested and absorbed, causing a rapid and high increase in blood sugar levels. While a low GI food is absorbed more slowly and causes a gradual and lower increase in blood sugar levels.
Tritordeum is a hybrid cereal grain that is a cross between durum wheat and barley. It is known for its high protein content and low gluten. It's important to note that the glycemic index of a food can vary depending on factors such as the variety, processing methods, and cooking methods used.
More research is needed to determine the exact glycemic index of Tritordeum.
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects the small intestine and is triggered by the consumption of gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. People with celiac disease must follow a strict gluten-free diet to manage their condition.
Tritordeum is a hybrid of durum wheat and barley, which both contain gluten, so it also contains gluten, and is not suitable for people suffering from celiac disease.
It's important to note that if you have digestive disorder when consuming cereals, it is best to consult with a doctor or dietitian before consuming Tritordeum or any gluten-containing food.
It's also worth mentioning that recent studies on people with non-celiac gluten sensitivity have shown that they can tolerate a Tritordeum-based diet. Check for scientific publications in the section: "My Sector, I am a nutricionist".
Nutrition claims are intended to help consumers make informed choices about the foods that they eat and to support healthy eating patterns.
Below are the available nutritional claims:
Tritordeum is a cereal grain that is being developed as a new alternative to wheat, and it can be used in baking applications, although it may require some adjustments to the traditional baking methods.
Tritordeum can be used as a 100% replacement for wheat flour in baking applications such as bread, crackers, and pasta. This is because Tritordeum has similar functional properties to wheat, including protein content, gluten content, and water absorption capacity. However, it's important to note that the baking properties of Tritordeum may vary depending on the variety, growing conditions, and processing methods used. Therefore, it's recommended to do some testing and make adjustments to the recipe to ensure optimal results when using Tritordeum flour in baking.
Tritordeum is a hybrid cereal crop that is a cross between barley and wild barley. It can be used for brewing and distilling like other cereal crops. Raw Tritordeum grain presents a very good diastatic power which helps to convert starch into sugars.
Due to its genetic makeup, Tritordeum is known for its high protein content, which can lead to difficulties in the filtration process. It is recommend to add husk of barley or rice bran to ease that step of the process.
Diastatic power is a measure of the enzymatic activity of a grain, specifically the activity of the enzymes responsible for converting starches into sugars during the mashing process. It is measured in degrees Lintner (°L) or simply as "Lintner", and it is used to determine the potential of a malt to convert starches into fermentable sugars during the brewing process. The higher the diastatic power, the more efficient the grain is at converting starches into sugars, which can lead to higher alcohol content in the final product. Barley malt, which is commonly used in brewing, typically has a diastatic power of around 160 - 220 °L.
Tritordeum is a cereal grain that is a hybrid of durum wheat and barley. The yellow color of Tritordeum flour is due to the presence of carotenoids, which are naturally occurring pigments found in many plants, including barley, one of the parents of Tritordeum.
Carotenoids, specifically the lutein and esterified lutein, are responsible for the yellow color in Tritordeum flour. These pigments are known for their health benefits, such as antioxidant properties, and have been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-diabetic effects. The presence of carotenoids in Tritordeum flour makes it unique and different from traditional wheat flour which is naturally white.
It's important to note that the color of Tritordeum flour may vary depending on the variety, location, and growing conditions.
Tritordeum is a cereal grain that is a hybrid of durum wheat and barley, and it has been reported to have a unique flavor profile due to its barley parentage.
Tritordeum has a nutty, slightly sweet and cereal-like flavor. The flavor profile of Tritordeum can be influenced by various factors such as the variety, location, and growing conditions.
It is important to note that the flavor of Tritordeum may change depending on the processing method used. For example in baking, using Tritordeum sourdough will bring out more of its dairy note and slightly sweet flavors, while toasting it will maintain its cereal-like flavor.
Tritordeum is a cereal grain that is a hybrid of durum wheat and barley.
The mandatory labelling declaration is: Tritordeum (WHEAT, BARLEY)
The optional labelling declaration is: Tritordeum is a cross between the species Wheat and Barley
Tritordeum is a cereal grain that is a hybrid of durum wheat and barley.
The only allergen present in Tritordeum is Gluten.
Tritordeum is not suitable for celiacs.